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Introduction to Immunology

Introduction to Immunology

Introduction to Immunology Basics of Immunology, Blood Groups, Rh typing, Immunity, Red Blood cells, White Blood cells, Platelets

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Immunology is the study of the immune system, which is the body's defense mechanism against disease-causing agents such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The immune system is composed of various cells, molecules, and organs that work together to protect the body from harmful pathogens.

The immune system can be divided into two main branches: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system is the body's first line of defense and provides a non-specific response to pathogens. This includes physical and chemical barriers, such as the skin and mucous membranes, as well as cells such as macrophages and neutrophils that can engulf and destroy pathogens.

The adaptive immune system, on the other hand, provides a specific response to pathogens. This system is composed of specialized cells called lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) that can recognize and attack specific pathogens. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, which targets infected cells, while B cells produce antibodies that can neutralize pathogens and mark them for destruction by other cells of the immune system.

Both the innate and adaptive immune systems rely on complex interactions between cells and molecules, and their response to pathogens is regulated by various signaling pathways.

Immunology also includes the study of the body's response to harmful substances and cancer cells, which is known as autoimmunity and cancer immunology respectively.

The field of Immunology is rapidly evolving, and new discoveries are being made constantly. It has many practical applications in medicine, such as the development of vaccines and immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune diseases.

In summary, Immunology is the study of the body's defense mechanism against pathogens and harmful substances and its a fascinating field that provides insight into the complex interactions between the body and the environment.

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